digital imagine processing

What is Digital Image Processing (DIP)

It is the manipulation of the digital data with the help of computer hardware and software to produce digital maps in which the specific information has been extracted and highlighted.

Contributed by: Venkat

Origin of Digital Image

The first application of digital image was in the newspaper industry when the pictures were first sent by submarine cable between London and New York.

The cable picture transmission in 1921 reduced the time required to transport a picture across the Atlantic for more than a week to less than 3 hours.

Objectives of DIP

  • Improvement on pictorial information for human interpretation
  • Processing of image data for storage, transmission and representation for autonomous machine perception.

Also Read: Introduction to Image Pre-processing | What is Image Pre-processing?

What is an Image?

An Image is a spatial representation of a two dimensional or three-dimensional scene.

It is an array or a matrix pixel (picture elements) arranged in columns and rows.

An image is also a two-dimensional array specifically arranged in rows and columns. Digital Image is composed of picture elements, image elements, and pixels. A Pixel is most widely used to denote the elements of a Digital Image.

Types of Images

  • Binary Image – The binary image contains only two pixel elements 0 & 1. 

Here, 0 refers to black and 1 refers to white. This is also known as Monochrome.

  • Black and White Image– The image contains black and white color.
  • 8 Bit Color Format – It has 256 different shades of colors and known as Grayscale Image. In this format, 0 stands for Black, and 255 stands for white, and 127 stands for Gray.
  • 16 Bit Color Format – It has different colors and is known as a High Color Format. The distribution of Color is not the same as a Grayscale image.

Note: A 16 bit format is actually divided into three further formats which are Red, Green and Blue. That famous RGB format.

DIP Process-Flow

Applications of DIP

  • Medical Field
  • Remote Sensing
  • Machine/Robot vision
  • Video processing
  • Pattern Recognition

Example: Take Slice from MRI Scan of canine heart, and find the boundaries between the tissue.

  • Image with grey levels representing tissue activity
  • Use a suitable filter to highlight edges.

Also Read: What is Image Recognition and How it is Used?

Need of Image Processing in Medical Field

  • Interfacing analog outputs of sensors such as endoscope to digitizers and into image processing systems
  • Changing density range of Black and White images
  • Color correction and manipulation of colors within a color image
  • Contour detection and area calculations of cells in a biometric image
  • Restoration and smoothing of images
  • Construction of 3D Images to 2D images
  • Zooming of images
  • Removal of artifacts from the image
  • Easy for doctors to see the interior portion of the human body.

Components of Image Processing

Image Acquisition: This is the first process. Involves Scaling of images. 

Image Enhancement: manipulating the images.

Image Restoration: Improves the appearance of the image.

DIP Applications in Research

Document Handling and Signature Verification

Biometric application

Fingerprint verification/identification

Object Recognition

Target Recognition – Department of defence (Army, navy and airforce)

-Interpretation of aerial photography – Google Maps is an example

-Traffic Monitoring

-Face Detection

-Face Recognition


Skin and breast cancer

Human Activity Recognition

Facial Expression Recognition

This brings us to the end of the blog on Digital Image Processing. We hope you enjoyed it. If you wish to learn more such concepts, join Great Learning Academy’s free online courses.



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