About this course
Secure-System Design Methodology
Introduction to Cyber Security
- What is Cyber Security?
- Key Concepts of Cyber Security
- Popular Attacks - Hacker Motivation
- Popular Attacks
- BotNet Attack
- Phishing Attack
- Introduction to Cryptography
- Types of Cryptography
- Symmetric Key Cryptography Part 1
- Symmetric Key Cryptography Part 2
- Message Integrity
- Public Key Cryptography
- Security goals & Its Implementations - Authentication & Authorisation
- Security goals & Its Implementations - Confidentiality
- Design a Security System - Part 1
- Design a Security System - Part 2
- Buffer OverFlow & Vulnerabilities
- Case Study: WhatsApp Attack
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What is cybersecurity?
Cybersecurity can be described as the process of protecting systems, networks, and programs from digital or virtual attacks. It is necessary to implement effective cybersecurity measures, considering the innovations of cybersecurity attacks, and the upward graph of technology and tools that are available to cyber criminals today. These cyber-attacks tend to access, change or even destroy sensitive information to the extent of extorting money from users or causally interrupt a normal business process.
Even though cybersecurity attacks were solely the problem of techies in the past, things have changed now, and no one can afford to ignore the importance of cybersecurity. Gadgets, phones, and anything that can be connected to a computer or the internet are susceptible to cyber-attacks from criminals. The possibility of data breaches, losing confidential information, and tarnishing the image of a business heightens with these attacks. Today, it is crucial that you know the types of cyber threats and how to implement your cybersecurity practices to prevent them.
Types of Cyber-attacks
A cyber-attack can be defined as an intentional activity that exploits computers, networks, and enterprises that rely heavily on technology. Cybercriminals use malicious codes to alter the data, logic, or code on the computer.
Broadly speaking, there are ten types of CyberSecurity Attacks:
- Phishing Attack
- Man in the Middle Attacks
- SQL Injection Threat
- Distributed Denial of Service
- Drive by Attack
- Cross Site Scripting
- Password Attack
- Ransomware Attack
- Eavesdropping Attack
- AI-powered Attack
- We have Summarized the all top 10 Cybersecurity Attacks below.
1. Phishing Attacks
Phishing is one of the methods used by cyber terrorists to attack any device or software. They use this technique to steal a user’s data from the internet or computer-connected device. Login credentials, credit card numbers, and passwords are usually what such hackers obtain from their victims.
These criminals disguise themselves, pretending to be someone their victims can trust. Then they trick them into opening a message, email, or link. Usually, the victim’s system freezes shortly after clicking the link or message, and their sensitive information becomes accessible to the hacker.
For example, they often target your spam folder in your email inbox. You probably receive spam in your email every day. Also, it is very likely that a few of them would have links to buy a product, or read an article. Such spams can be a window for hackers to steal funds, make unauthorized purchases, or take over your entire computer. Phishing can cause security breach that can have disastrous, and long-lasting effects on a victim. There are several types of phishing attacks which include:
- Whale Phishing- Here, high-profiled employees like CEOs are targeted and tricked into making transfers to the attacker.
- Spear Attack- This is an email targeted threat to an individual or organization.
- Pharming- Pharming is a fraudulent act that directs users to a fake page that looks like the original, to steal from them. For example, an attacker can create a web page that looks exactly like that of the victim’s bank to trick them into entering their pin.
2. Man-in-the-middle attack
The man-in-the-middle is a security attack where the cybercriminals place themselves between the communication system of a client and the server. This could be when you are on a call with your manager, and he/she has shared some sensitive information with you over the phone. In man-in-the-middle attacks, a criminal will be listening to that conversation and obtain the information you share with others.
Man-in-the-middle is by far the sneakiest attack by criminals. Vulnerable WiFi connections and communication lines are the easiest means to carry out this security breach. The three common types of man-in-the-middle attack are:
- Session Hijacking- In this cyber-attack, the hacker takes control of the session between the network server and the victim. For instance, the hacker can replace the user’s connection, or even create a fake server and trick the victim into connecting to it.
- IP spoofing- This security breach provides access to the hacker by tricking the user into communicating with a known entity. For instance, a packet of internet addresses, including that of a trusted site like google, can be sent to the victim.
- Replay- In this Man-in-the-middle threat, the hacker saves old messages and then uses it later to impersonate the user. For example, if a hacker gets hold of your Instagram page, he or she can use it to impersonate you.
3. SQL Injection Treat
SQL is an acronym for Structured Query Language, and an SQL attack is one of the oldest cybersecurity breaches. In SQL you make queries and in the case of SQL injection threat, the attacker sends a malicious query to the device (a computer, phone, etc.) or a server. The server is then forced to expose sensitive information.
For example, a cybercriminal will be able to create a query that disrupts and gets into the database of your webpage through SQL injection. All the data, like your customers’ details, amount paid, and other confidential information, can then be released by the query.
The daunting part of this cyber-attack is that the attacker can not only get hold of sensitive information but also alter or wipe them completely.
4. Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attack
This cyber-attack overwhelms a network, system, or computer with unwanted traffic. The attacker bombards the system or server with high-volume traffic, that its bandwidth and resources cannot handle. Hence, they will not be able to respond to requests. For example, a gardening website that notices a sky-rocketed number of visits of unknown users in a day may be under a DDoS attack.
Distributed Denial of Service attacks does not usually result in identity theft or loss of vital information. However, it will cost a lot of money to get the server running again.
5. Drive-by Attack
Drive-by attacks are security threats that download unwanted materials from a website. It is also one of the most common ways of spreading malware. All the hacker has to do is to plant code on the page. You have probably seen a few pop-ups that do not relate in any way to what you are searching on the internet. Such pop-ups are drive-by attacks.
Unlike other cyber-attacks, a drive-by download does not need you to do anything to enable the attack on your computing device. The best way to protect yourself from such threats is to update your internet browsers frequently. Also, do not leave too many apps and programs on your devices open.
6. Cross-Site Scripting (XSS)
Cross-site scripting is a cyber-attack where an attacker sends malicious code to a reputable website. It is an attack that can happen only when a website allows a code to attach to its own code. The attacker bundles together two scripts and send to the victim. As soon as the script executes, the attacker receives a cookie. With this type of cyber-attack, hackers can collect sensitive data and monitor the activities of the victim.
For example, if you see a funny-looking code on your government’s page, then an attacker is probably trying to get access to your device through Cross-Site Scripting.
7. Password Attack
As its name implies, password attack is an attempt to steal passwords from a user. Since passwords are the most common authentication means, attackers are always on the lookout for ways to use this cyber-attack. Two common techniques they use to get a user’s password are:
- Brute-force guessing- This entails using different random words, hoping that one of them would be the correct password. If the hacker knows his or her victim, they can apply logic while guessing and try the person’s title, name, job, or hobbies as the password
- Dictionary Attack- In this case, the hacker uses some of the common passwords to gain access to the user’s device. For instance, 1234 or ‘abcde’ are passwords that a lot of people use on their devices and these two are at the top of the list of common ones an attacker will try out. To protect yourself from either of these two types of password attacks, implement a lockout policy to your cybersecurity.
8. Ransomware Attack
One cyber threat with scary consequences is the ransomware attack. Moreover, in this type of security breach, the malware prevents users from accessing the data they stored on a server or database. The hacker then sends out a threat demanding a ransom, else they would expose or delete the data.
9. Eavesdropping Attack
Eavesdropping attack is also known as snooping, network security threat, or sniffing. It is very similar to the man-in-the-middle attack, but it does not allow a secure connection between the user and a server. Theft of data and information occurs after you send them out, so they do not get across to the server.
Unsecured and weak network transmissions allow this security breach to thrive. Any device within the network is susceptible to an eavesdropping attack from hackers.
10. AI-Powered attacks
In recent years, Artificial intelligence (AI) has been making ground-breaking success. Almost every gadget has some application of AI in it, which heightens the scare of an AI-powered cyber-attack. Such security threats will have the most devastating effects as autonomous cars, drones, and computer systems can be hacked by artificial intelligence. AI can also shut down power supplies, national security systems, and hospitals.
Impact of Cyber Attacks
Cybersecurity attacks can a lot of damage in various ways, especially in the following areas:
- Economic costs: This involves theft of intellectual property, corporate information, disruption in trading and the cost of repairing damaged systems.
- Reputational costs: This includes loss of consumer trust and loss of future customers to competitors due to poor media coverages.
- Regulatory costs: GDPR and other data breach laws can impact an organization to suffer from regulatory fines or sanctions due to these cybercrimes.
It is vital for all businesses, regardless of the size, to understand cybersecurity threats and methods to mitigate them because sooner or later, they will face some kind of issue. This includes regular training on the subject, and a framework to work with – that aims to reduce its risks of data leaks and breaches. It is better to stay safe than sorry.
Importance of Cybersecurity
Today the world is facing an increasing amount of cybersecurity threats, and this is driven by the global connectivity and usage of cloud services to store sensitive data and personal information. Poor configuration of cloud services paired with increasingly sophisticated cyber-criminals means the risk that your organisation suffers from a successful cyber-attack or data breach is on the rise. Apart from businesses and organisations, at an individual level, a cybersecurity attack can result in everything from identity theft, extortion attempts, to the loss of basic important data like family photos. Cybersecurity is extremely essential because it encompasses everything that includes protecting our sensitive data, Personally Identifiable Information (PII), Protected Health Information (PHI), personal information, intellectual property data, and many more from theft and damages attempted digitally by criminals.
In the present day world, everyone benefits from advanced cyber defense programs.
A successful cybersecurity approach contains numerous layers of protection that is spread across the computers, networks, and programs. In an organisation, hence, it is essential to ensure that the people, the processes, and technology in it must all complement one another in order to create an effective defence from cyber attacks.
These are some of the cyber-attacks that you can face as a business owner or user of technological devices. The data, accounts, passwords, and sensitive information that can be lost, deleted, or made public by cyber-attacks is alarming. It is no surprise that there is a lot of demand for cyber security professionals in the market today.